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Rules Of Punctuation

Punctuation and Capitalization

Punctuation:

 

Punctuation হলো একটানা কথা বলতে বলতে আমরা মাঝে মাঝে থেমে যাই, দম নিয়ে থাকি। ঠিক তেমনি  কিছু পড়ার সময় আমাদের মাঝে মাঝে থামতে হয় বা break নিতে হয়। বাক্যের অর্থ সুস্পষ্ট ভাবে বোঝার জন্য বাক্যের কথায় কতটুকু থামতে হবে তার কিছু নিয়ম আছে এবং কতগুলো সাংকেতিক চিহ্নর সাহায্যে নিয়মগুলো প্রকাশ করা হয়। এই সাংকেতিক চিহ্ন গুলো কে punctuation বা punctuation marks বলা হয়। এই punctuation mark গুলো সঠিক জাগায় সঠিকভাবে ব্যাবহার না হলে বাক্যের অর্থ বা ভাব সঠিক ভাবে বোঝা যাবে না।

Example:

  • I was walking through a forest Suddenly I heard a roar It was a tiger I was very afraid I was in a fix what to do I asked myself what will you do Sourav I found no answer

উপরের প্যাসাজটি পড়ে আমাদের বুঝতে ঝামেলা হবে কেননা এখানে কোন punctuation ব্যবহার করা হয় নি। যার ফলে, আমাদের কোথায় থামতে হবে এবং কোন কথাটি দ্বারা কী বুঝানো হয়েছে সেটা বুঝতে অসুবিধা হচ্ছে উপরের প্যাসেজটি সব দিক থেকেই সঠিক থাকার পরও শুধুমাত্র punctuation এর ব্যবহার না থাকায় লেখকের মনের ভাব প্রকাশে ব্যর্থ হয়েছে। কিন্তু এখন, এই প্যাসেজটিকেই যদি আমরা সঠিক punctuation ব্যবহার করে লিখি, তাহলে এটি তার সম্পূর্ণ মনের ভাব খুব সহজেই প্রকাশ করে।

  • I was walking through a forest. Suddenly, I heard a roar. It was a tiger. I was very afraid. I was in a fix what to do. I asked myself, “What will you do Sourav?” I found no answer.

The common punctuations in English are:

  1. The full-stop/the period (.)
  2. The comma (,)
  3. The note of exclamation (!)
  4. The note of interrogation (?)
  5. The semicolon (;)
  6. The colon (:)
  7. The quotation mark (“ “)
  8. The apostrophe (‘)
  9. The hyphen (-)
  10. Parentheses (),
  11. brackets [],
  12. and braces {}

The full-stop (.) এর ব্যবহার:

Period কে British English এ বলা হয় full-stop. Period/full-stop ইংরেজি ভাষার সবচেয়ে বেশি ব্যবহৃত punctuation যা বাক্যের সমাপ্তি নির্দেশ করে। প্রশ্নবোধক আর বিস্ময়সূচক বাক্য ছাড়া সকল বাক্যের শেষেই period ব্যবহার করা হয়। এটি সাধারণত abbreviation এর ক্ষেত্রেও ব্যবহার করা হয়।

Example:

  1. His name is Kamal.
  2. The beggar was begging.
  3. He is playing football.

Statement জাতীয় বাক্যের শেষে।

Example:

  1. I love to travel.
  2. The show starts on Thursday.

Command জাতীয় বাক্যের শেষে।
Example:

  1. Do the work properly
  2. Do not run in the sun.
  3. Indirect question সম্বলিত বাক্যের শেষে। Example:
    1. Mousumi asked me why I didn’t attend the party.
    2. He wondered why Akash was not present.

    Abbreviation এর মধ্যে।
    Example:

    1. A = United States of America
    2. /Mrs. = Mister/misses

    Website address এর ক্ষেত্রে।
    Example:

    1. english-bangla.com
    2. com

    The comma (,) এর ব্যবহার:

    Comma সাধারণত একটি sentence এর ভিতরে বিভিন্ন clause, phrase, অথবা word গুলোকে আলাদা করার জন্যে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

     

    Example:

    1. Bangladesh, an over-populated country, is not rich.
    2. His uncle, who came here yesterday, is a police inspector.
    3. The man, who was running to and fro, was a thief.

    Commas are used in different ways:

     একটি list এর অনেকগুলো item কে আলাদা করার জন্যে comma ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    The colors in his drawing-room are green, black, and blue.

    He has three dogs, two cats, and four hens.

    Direct speech কে indirect speech থেকে আলাদা করার জন্যে inverted comma র পাশাপাশি সাধারণ একটি comma ও ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    1. He replied, “No need to come today”.
    2. I replied, “I’ll do the work within two days”.

     দুটি Clause কে আলাদা করার জন্যে comma ব্যবহার করা হয়।  

    Example:

    1. I saw her in London, where I lived for twenty years.
    2. Although he tried his level best, he could not manage the money.

     দুটি adjective যখন usual order এর ব্যতিক্রম হিসেবে আসে তখন তাদেরকে comma দ্বারা আলাদা করা হয়।

    Example:

    1. He has a small, red dog.
    2. He has a short, little sister.

    ‘Month Day, year. ফরম্যাটে তারিখ লেখার ক্ষেত্রে comma ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    It was established on April 12, 1992.

    The class will start on October 19, 2017.

     কাউকে নাম ধরে সরাসরি সম্মোধনের ক্ষেত্রে নামের আগে comma হয়।

    Example:

    1. Thanks a lot for your hospitality, Ashraf.

    Participial phrase কে মুল clause থেকে আলাদা করার জন্যে comma ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    1. Watching the news, we came to know the matter.
    2. Hearing the voice, I knew you.

    Tag question কে আলাদা করতে comma ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    1. He knows the matter, doesn’t he?
    2. He did the work, didn’t he?

    The note of exclamation (!) এর ব্যবহার:

     আকস্মিক এবং আবেগকম্পিত কোন expression প্রকাশ করার জন্যে exclamatory sentence এ Note of exclamation ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    1. Hurrah! We’ve won the game.
    2. How beautiful you are!

     কাউকে Warn (সতর্ক) করার ক্ষেত্রেও exclamation mark ব্যবহৃত হয়।

    Example:

     While walking through a forest, a father suddenly told his daughter, “Watch out!”

       ⇒ Direct order এর ক্ষেত্রেও exclamation mark ব্যবহৃত হয়।

    Example:

    • “Do not enter the room!”

    ⇒ প্রবল অনুভূতি যেমন surprise, happiness, feelings, etc. বুঝাতে exclamation mark ব্যবহার করা হয়।

     

    Example:

    1. Anger: “Stop your mouth!”
    2. Fear: “The snake is going to bite the child!”
    3. Happiness: “Good to see you!”
    4. Surprise: “The train is late in Japan!”

    ⇒ Casual writing এর ক্ষেত্রেও মাঝে মাঝে note of exclamation ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    1. She is leaving me!
    2. You are talking like a fool!

    The note of interrogation (?) এর ব্যবহার:

     

    সরাসরি প্রশ্নবোধক বাক্যের শেষে note of interrogation ব্যবহার করা হয়।

         Example:

    1. Where are you going?
    1. “Do you love me?” he asked me.

     It can also be used in a bracket to show the unconvinced mood/situation of a writer.

    The semicolon (;) এর ব্যবহার:

     

    Comma র চেয়ে বেশি এবং full-stop এর চেয়ে কম pause এর জন্যে semicolon ব্যবহার করা হয়।

     দুইটা একইরকম বাক্যকে সংযুক্ত করার জন্যে semicolon ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    1. My car is green; my brothers is red.

    Finally, similarly, also, besides, however, next, then, meanwhile, therefore, likewise, furthermore, ইত্যাদি conjunctive adverb এর আগে সাধারণত semicolon ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    1. I’ll go to school; then I’ll watch a movie.

    Location, date, name এবং description এর list বানানোর ক্ষেত্রে semicolon ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    Names and descriptions:

    My favorite persons are Nurul Islam, my English teacher; Mr. Khairul Islam, my math teacher; and Mr. Tapan Chakrabarty, my Bengali teacher.

    Dates:

    Their joining dates are June 12, 2011; April 20, 2016; and January 6, 2017.

    Locations:

    He lived in Dhaka, Bangladesh; Paris, France; and Liverpool, London.

    The colon introduces a word or words, a list or a quotation, and a phrase.

    কোন শব্দ বা বাক্যের ব্যাখ্যা করার জন্যে colon ব্যবহার করা হয়। Colon এর পর একটি শব্দও থাকতে পারে আবার অনেকগুলো শব্দও থাকতে পারে।

    Example:

    He wants only one thing: a job.

    He likes many foods: apples, pineapples, oranges, and broccoli.

    Colon এর পরের অংশকে গুরুত্ব প্রদান করার জন্যেও colon ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    He was fit for the job as he had experience in one field: teaching.

    Salutation অথবা greeting এর পর colon ব্যবহার করা হয়।  

    Example:

    Dear mam:

    To Whom It May Concern:

    The quotation mark (“ “) এর ব্যবহার:

    Quotation mark সাধারণত অন্য কারো উল্লেখিত বাণী/লেখনী কে উদ্ধৃতি হিসেবে বাক্যে নিয়ে আসার জন্যে ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    She said, “Come in.”

    He said, “Go to the market and bring some rice.”

    ⇒ Poems, short stories, chapters, articles, ইত্যাদি থেকে উদ্ধৃতি দেয়ার জন্যে quotation mark ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    My favorite poem by Jashim Uddin is “Kabar”.

    Have you ever heard the name of the article “How to speak English with Better Accent”?

    “The humanity” is the third chapter of this book.

     একটি শব্দের অর্থ তার প্রথাগত/পারিভাষিক অর্থ না বুঝিয়ে অন্য কিছু বুঝালে সেই শব্দকে quotation mark এর মধ্যে ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    She was “delighted” to see you. (She was not very delighted)

    What does the “doctor” claim? (The speaker doesn’t really think this person is a doctor)

     বাক্যের ভিতরে একটি শব্দকে যদি বাক্যের অংশ হিসেবে ব্যবহার না করে আলাদা একটি শব্দ হিসেবে উল্লেখ করতে হয় তখন তাকে quotation mark দিয়ে আলাদা করা হয়।

    Example:

    Search the word “colonel” from the dictionary.

    “Abdomen” comes from Latin.

    The apostrophe (‘) এর ব্যবহার:

    To show possession: মালিকানা বোঝানোর জন্যঃ

    Example:

    Cat’s house = the house of the cat

    Akash’s car = Akash owns the car

    Kazi’s kitchen = the owner name of the kitchen is Kazi.

     যে শব্দের শেষে ‘s’ থাকে সেগুলোতে apostrophe র পরে আলাদা করে ‘s’ যোগ করতে হয় না।

    Example:

    Girls’ college

    The boys’ legs

    An apostrophe shows missing letters or numbers: বিলুপ্ত বর্ণকে চিহ্নিত করার জন্যেও apostrophe ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    Can’t = cannot

    Didn’t = did not

    Haven’t = have not

    1970 = ‘70

    1992 = ‘92

    The hyphen (-) এর ব্যবহার:

    Hyphen সাধারণত দুইটি word কে সংযুক্ত করার জন্যে ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    Well-known teacher

    Nice-looking girl

    Co-operative

    21 থেকে 99 পর্যন্ত প্রতিটি সংখ্যার লিখিতরূপে hyphen ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    Twenty-three

    Seventy-nine

    Ninety-nine

    ⇒ Fraction এর লিখিতরূপেও hyphen ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    One-fifth

    Two-sixths

    Seven-ninths

     অর্থের বিভ্রান্তি দূর করার জন্যেও hyphen ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    A little-used car (A car that is not used often)

    A little used-car (A used car which is small)

     কিছু job titles এর ক্ষেত্রেও hyphen ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    Vice-chancellor

    Vice-president

    Secretary-general

     কিছু proper noun এর আগে prefix যোগ করার ক্ষেত্রে hyphen ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Un-American

    Anti-Islamic

    Anti-terrorism

    Prefix ‘self’ এর পরে hyphen ব্যবহার করা হয়। (but not with selfless and selfish)

    Self-control

    Self-respect

    ⇒ Prefix ‘ex’ এর পরেও hyphen ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Ex-husband

    Ex-wife

    Prefix ‘non’ এর পরেও hyphen ব্যবহার করা হয়। (Not with the words ‘nonconformist’, ‘nonstop’)

    Non-violent

    Non-alcoholic

    Parentheses (), brackets [], and braces {}:

    Parentheses () এর ব্যবহার:

    কিছু অতিরিক্ত তথ্য কোন বাক্যে যোগ করার জন্যে parentheses এর সাহায্য নেয়া হয়।

    Example:

    Shahadat (the boy from Bidyakut Amar High School) helped me much to complete the homework.

    I went to pabna (which is famous for the mental hospital) yesterday.

    Brackets [] এর ব্যবহার:

    বাক্যের মধ্যে কোন ব্যক্তিগত মন্তব্য অথবা কোন নির্দিষ্ট শব্দ কাকে চিহ্নিত করে তা বোঝানোর জন্যে brackets ব্যবহার করা হয়।

    Example:

    He can drive 60 [miles per hour] on the highway.

    He [Alif] is my best friend.

    Braces {} এর ব্যবহার:

    ইংরেজি ভাষায় braces এর ব্যবহার শুধুমাত্র mathematics এই রয়েছে। বাক্যে এর কোন ব্যবহার নেই।  

     

    Capitalization

    ১। প্রত্যেক sentence এর প্রথম word টি capital letter দিয়ে শুরু হয়। যেমনঃ

    He is a good student.

     

    ২। কোনো ব্যক্তি এবং স্থান ( গ্রাম, থানা, জেলা, দেশ ইত্যাদি) এর প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    My name is Rahim.

    I live in Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    ৩। “আমি” অর্থ বোঝাতে I সব সময় capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    If he wants, I shall help him.

    ৪। উপাধি এর প্রথম অক্ষর সব সময় capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    Mr. Karim is our Headmaster.

    ৫। Abbreviation সব সময় capital letter দিয়ে লিখতে হয়। যেমনঃ

    M.A, B.A, U.S.A, BSc

    ৬। চিঠিপত্রের সম্বোধনে capital letter ব্যাহার করা হয়। যেমনঃ

    My dear Mother,

    Dear Sir.

    ৭। বই-পুস্তক, ধর্মগ্রন্থ এবং সংবাদ পত্রের নামের প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    The Quran, The Daily Star.

    ৮। শিক্ষা প্রতিষ্ঠান, উপাসনালয়, ব্যবসায়, সমিতি প্রভৃতির নামের প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    Dhaka City College. Mosque, Temple etc.

    ৯। শিক্ষা প্রতিষ্ঠানের বিষয়গুলোর প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    Bengali, English, Mathematics etc.

    ১০। জাহাজ, বিমান, ট্রেন, বিখ্যাত স্থানের নামের প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    The Titanic, the Tajmahal, Mohanagar Express.

    ১১। জাতি, ধর্ম সম্প্রদায়ের নামের প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    The Muslim, the Cristian, The Sunni.

    ১২। আল্লাহ তাআলার (God) নাম বাচক শব্দের এবং তার পরিবর্তে ব্যবহৃত Pronoun এর প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    The old sailor prayed to God and He blessed him.

    ১৩। বার, মাস, পর্ব ও বিখ্যাত ঐতিহাসিক ঘটনার প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    My father came home on Monday last.

    Our Annual Examination will be held on next November.

    The Battle of Palasey took place in 1757 A.D.

    ১৪। ইংরেজি কবিতার প্রতি লাইনের প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ
    The music in my heart I bore.
    Long after it was heard no more.

    ১৫। দিক এর (North,South,East,West) প্রথম অক্ষর smallletter হয়, কিন্তু দিক যখন ভৌগোলিক অঞ্চল/অবস্থান বোঝায় তখন তাদের প্রথম অক্ষর capital letter হয়। যেমনঃ

    The sun rises in the east

    কিন্তু He spent his whole life in the East.

     

    Exercise For Practice

    Use capitals and punctuation marks where necessary in the following text.

    Exercise:  01   arent you going to have any said i no i never eat asparagus i know there are people who dont like them the fact is that you ruin your palate by all the meat you eat she said.

    Answer: “Aren’t you going to have any?” said I. “No, I never eat asparagus.” “I know there are people who don’t like them. The fact is that you ruin your palate by all the meat you eat,” she said.

    Exercise: 02  the teacher said to the girl do you think that honesty is the best policy yes sir i think so said the girl then learn to be honest from your childhood thank you sir said the girl may allah to bless you said the teacher

    Answer:  The teacher said to the girl, “Do you think that honesty is the best policy?” “Yes, sir, think so,” said the girl. “Then learn to be honest from your childhood.” “Thank you sir,” said the girl. “May Allah bless you,” said the teacher.

    Exercise: 03   Use capitals and punctuation marks where necessary in the following text. [Barishal Board-2020] do not worry about a few mistakes said the teacher you can learn a lot through your mistakes do we learn from our mistakes asked the boy.

     Answer:  “Do not worry about a few mistakes,” said the teacher, “you can learn a lot through your mistakes.” “Do we learn from our mistakes?” asked the boy.

    Exercise: 04 how is your father bilkis said mr rahman he is very well thank you bilkis replied i am glad to hear that he is in good health said mr Rahman

     Answer: “How is your father, Bilkis?” said Mr. Rahman. “He is very well. Thank you.” Bilkis replied. “I am glad to hear that he is in good health,” said Mr. Rahman.

    Exercise: 05  hello old lady what are you doing said the princess i am spinning a yarn around the spindle replied the old woman.

    Answer: “Hello, old lady, what are you doing?” said the Princess. “I am spinning a yarn around the spindle,” replied the old woman.

    Exercise: 06  would you please tell me one reason of air pollution yes the smoke from our household activities vehicles factories etc is mainly causing air pollution

     Answer: “Would you please tell me one reason of air pollution?” “Yes, the smoke from our household activities, vehicles, factories etc. is mainly causing air pollution.

    Exercise:  07  have you heard the name of alexander asked mr ahmed no sir razu replied how strange it is said he will you tell me about alexander please well he was the great king of macedonia

     Answer: “Have you heard the name of Alexander?” asked Mr. Ahmed. “No sir.” Razu replied. “How strange it is!” said he. “Will you tell me about Alexander, please?” “Well, he was the great king of Macedonia.”

    Exercise: 08  go to bed now mother said you can complete your assignment in the morning no mom ill finish it now

     Answer: “Go to bed now,” Mother said. “You can complete your assignment in the morning. “No, Mom! I’ll finish it now.”

    Exercise: 09   why ard you late always try to attend the class regularly yes sir the student said to the teacher

     Answer: “Why are you late? Always try to attend the class regularly.” “Yes sir,” the student said to the teacher.

    Exercise: 10  zaman can you tell me what i am teaching the teacher asked im sorry sir i can’t follow replied zaman you can’t because you are not attentive the teacher said

    Answer:   “Zaman, can you tell me what I am teaching?” the teacher asked. “I’m sorry sir. I can’t follow,” replied Zaman. “You can’t because you are not attentive,” the teacher said.

    Exercise: 11 don’t you have any relative here to stay with no sir so i need a transfer certificate to be admitted there

    Answer:   “Don’t you have any relative here to stay with?” “No, sir. So, I need a transfer certificate to be admitted there.”

    Exercise: 12  do you know me yes i know you from my childhood whats your name my name is sumon thank you a lot said mr jamal

     Answer: “Do you know me?” “Yes, I know you from my childhood.” “What’s your name?” “My name is Sumon.” “Thank you a lot.” said Mr. Jamal.

     

    Exercise:  13 stop you are eating all our bread shouted the two rats I M not doing My best but I have told you. that its difficult said the monkey give us that little Piece said the rats this is My Piece havent I laboured a lot for you replied the Monkey how foolish we are believing you said the two rats

    Answer:  “Stop! You are eating all our bread,” shouted the two rats. “I’m doing my best, but I have told you that it’s difficult,” said the monkey. “Give us that little piece.” said the rats. “This is my piece. Haven’t I laboured a lot for you?” replied the Monkey..”How foolish we are believing you!” said the two rats.

    Exercise: 14  whats your programme after the examination asked ratul nabil said i havent yet decided can you suggest any lets go on a picnic said ratul what an excellent idea

    Answer:  “What’s your programme after the examination?” asked Ratul. Nabil said, “I haven’t yet decided, Can you suggest any?” “Let’s go on a picnic,” said Ratul. “What an excellent idea!”

    Exercise:  15  in a certain school a student, once found a one hundred taka note in the play ground he took it to his teacher what shall i do with it asked the teacher

    Answer:  In a certain school a student once found a one hundred taka note in the play ground. He took it to his teacher. “What shall I do with it?” asked the teacher.

    Exercise:  16  the teacher said to me dont you like to practise english its an important subject and you should be more careful about it

     Answer: The teacher said to me, “Don’t you like to practise English? It’s an important subject and you should be more careful about it.”

    Exercise:  17  how daring you are to wake me up the lion roared i shall kill you for that please let me go the mouse cried i did not mean to wake you up

     Answer:  “How daring you are to wake me up?” the lion roared. “I shall kill you for that.” “Please, let me go”, the mouse cried.” I did not mean to wake you up.”

    Exercise:  18 my sons listen to me said rahman an old farmer a great treasure lies hidden in the land there i am going to leave it for you the sons asked how shall we find it

    Answer:  “My sons, listen to me,” said Rahman, an old farmer. “A great treasure lies hidden in the land there. I am going to leave it for you.” The sons asked, “How shall we find it?”

    Exercise:  19 why don’t you attend classes regularly the teacher said to the boy you cannot expect good résult unless you attend classes be regular in class.

     Answer :  Why don’t you attend classes regularly?” the teacher said to the boy. “You can’t expect good result unless you attend classes. Be regular in class.”

    Exercise: 20 oh my lord please dont kill the child said the first woman to the king solomon let her have it king solomon said to them now everything is clear to me pointing the first woman he said to the servant give her the child she is the mother of the baby.

    Answer:  “Oh my lord! Please don’t kill the child,” said the first woman to the king Solomon. “Let her have it,” King Solomon said to them. “Now everything is clear to me.” Pointing the first woman he said to the servant, “Give her the child. She is the mother of the baby.”

    Exercise: 21 thomas alva edison a great scientist was born in 1847 in ohio america as a little boy he was very inquisitive he always wanted to know how things were done very early in life he showed that he was full of curiosity a quality which is so important to inventors.

     Answer: Thomas Alva Edison, a great scientist was born in 1847 in Ohio, America. As a little boy he was very inquisitive. He always wanted to know how things were done. Very early in life he showed that he was full of curiosity, a quality which is so important to inventors.

    Exercise: 22   why are you putting up the food in your pocket why don’t you eat asked the noble man i am doing the right thing replied sheikh saadi

    Answer:  “Why are you putting up the food in your pocket? Why don’t you eat?” asked the noble man. “I am doing the right thing”, replied Sheikh Saadi.

    Exercise:  23 the lion roared how dare you wake me up ill kill you the mouse cried please let me go i didn’t mean to wake you up

    Answer:  The lion roared, “How dare you wake me up? I’ll kill you.” The mouse cried, ” Please, let me go. I didn’t mean to wake you up.”

    Exercise: 24  who are jolly those who have. sound health are jolly sound mind lies in sound body minds become jolly when our life is filled with pleasure.

    Answer:  Who are jolly? Those who have sound health are jolly. Sound mind lies in sound body. Minds become jolly when our life is filled with pleasure.

    Exercise:  25  my dear mother your letter is just to hand it seems to me that you are anxious for me why you need not think about me

     Answer:   My dear mother, your letter is just to hand. It seems to me that you are anxious for me. Why? You need not think about me.

    Exercise: 26  give me a few grains of corns i am dying of hunger said the grasshopper but what did you do in the summer didn’t you store any grain the ant remarked to i was too busy in singing.

     Answer: “Give me a few grains of corns. I am dying of hunger,” said the grasshopper. “But what did you do in the summer? Didn’t you store any grain?” the ant remarked to. “I was too busy in singing.”

    Exercise: 27  are you ill he said coldly no i said then why are you sitting when all others are working go out at once and give them a hand

     Answer:  “Are you ill?” he said coldly. “No”, I said. “Then why are you sitting when all others are working? Go out at once and give them a hand.

    Exercise:  28   i was born in a village near tangail a small river flows beside the village the villagers bathe in the river and catch fish how happy they are what they want is peace

    Answer:   I was born in a village near Tangail. A small river flows beside the village. The villagers bathe in the river and catch fish. How happy they are! What they want is peace.

    Exercise: 29  did people use stamps in those days asked rafiq yes answered mr jamal the first stamps were used in 1840 are they easy to get now asked rafiq they are very difficult to get his uncle replied

    Answer:   “Did people use stamps in those days?” asked Rafiq. “Yes,” answered Mr. Jamal. “The first stamps were used in 1840.” “Are they easy to get now?” asked Rafiq. “They are very difficult to get,” his uncle replied.

    Exercise: 30  after supper when I began to set out lucy trembled in fear and said alfred dear are you quite sure that the letter really came from your chief I laughed told her not to be afraid and hurried out of the room and walked down the street.

    Answer:   After supper when I began to set out, Lucy trembled in fear and said, “Alfred dear, are you quite sure that the letter really came from your chief”?” I laughed, told her not to be afraid and hurried out of the room and walked down the street.

    Exercise: 31  the man said to me where are you going i am going to school said i did you go to school yesterday no i replied why didn’t you go i was very busy said i

    Answer:  The man said to me, “Where are you going?” “I am going to school.” said I. “Did you go to school yesterday?” “No,” I replied. “Why didn’t you go?” “I was very busy.” said I.

    Exercise: 32  the teacher said to the boy where are you going now i am going to school said the boy did you go to school yesterday no the boy replied why did you not go i was suffering from fever said the boy

     Answer:   The teacher said to the boy, “Where are you going now?” “I am going to school,” said the boy. “Did you go to school yesterday?” “No,” the boy replied. “Why did you not go?” “I was suffering from fever,” said the boy.

    Exercise: 33  robert bruce the king of scotland was defeated at a war and failed to regain his country’s freedom several times naturally he was in a very dejected mood sitting in his hide out he lost himself in deep thought.

     Answer:   Robert Bruce, the king of Scotland, was defeated at a war and failed to regain his country’s freedom several times. Naturally he was in a very dejected mood. Sitting in his hide out, he lost himself in deep thought.

    Exercise: 34  the king said what harm did I do then that you should seek to take my life with your own hand you killed my father and my two brothers the young man replied.

    Answer:   The King said, “What harm did I do then that you should seek to take my life with your own hand?” “You killed my father and my two brothers,” the young man replied.

    Exercise:  35  why are you going to barisal said father i want to buy some important books said saad do you need money yes father don’t go alone as time is not going well.

    Answer:  “Why are you going to Barisal?” said father. “I want to buy some important books,” said Saad. “Do you need money?” “Yes, father.” “Don’t go alone as time is not going well.”

    Exercise: 36  once my mother said to me who came to you my friend Rafiq mom she asked what did he want i said his mother is ill he needs some money i have given him five hundred taka my mother said wonderful.

    Answer:   Once my mother said to me, “Who came to you?” “My mother friend Rafiq, Mom.” She said, “What did he want?” I said, “His mother is ill. He needs some money. I have given him five hundred taka.” My mother said, “Wonderful!”

    Exercise: 37  bangladesh is a small country with a population of about sixteen crores she can hardly make headway so we should work hard to keep pace with the rest of the world

     Answer:   Bangladesh is a small country. With a population of about sixteen crores, she can hardly make headway. So, we should work hard to keep pace with the rest of the world.

    Exercise: 38  is there anybody here who has ever crossed a river by a boat i have teacher i clearly remember what happened in that journey said Jamal.

     Answer:   “Is there any anybody here who has ever crossed a river by a boat?” “I have, teacher. I clearly remember what happened in that Journey,” said Jamal.

     

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